Beyond the intuition that says "I know one when I see one," how do you go about measuring the effectiveness of any given legislature? By Alan Rosenthal What do we want our state legislatures of the 21st century to be?
What do legislatures in authoritarian regimes do? By Joshua Tucker on December 14, No, this post is not going to feature another picture of the Ukrainian parliament.
Instead, it is a guest post from Washington University political scientist Nate Jensen and is cross-posted on his blog. I think it is also a nice illustration of another type of contribution that can be made by blogs; anyone interested in doing something similar on another topic should feel free to get in touch with me directly.
So after you read the original post here, check those out as well. But this project has led to a bunch of follow-up questions. I sent off emails to a few friends working in this area to ask them about their take on the role of legislatures in the country or region they study.
This led to an idea. Why not get a bunch of cross-national, region and country specialists to weigh in on the importance of legislatures in authoritarian regimes? A bunch of people agreed to provide comments.
Others suggested faculty and grad students working in this area. Below are their contributions. This is their show. Legislative Politics in Authoritarian Brazil 3. The Role of Legislatures in Dictatorships 4. Victor Menaldo University of Washington: Latin America and Cross-National 5.
Indonesia and Malaysia 6. Ora John Reuter Emory: Joseph Wright Penn State: Consequently, the literature often ignores the fact that the creation of a functioning legislature is in part dependent on the opposition; opposition groups get to decide whether or not they want to participate in these institutions.
Unfortunately, we rarely investigate the effects of this strategic interaction on policy outcomes. They operate as part of a larger institutional context that can include elections, courts, etc.
Because we are a species of social animals, we possess an innate need for acceptance, a need that impels us to behave in a way that facilitates coexistence. In other words, it isn’t so much society, but rather nature, that makes us want to go along with the group. Background: Nurses’ influence on health policy protects the quality of care by access to required recourses and opportunities. This is a new and important concept for nursing; however, research studies on policy influence of nurses in health care sector are lacking a basic conceptual understanding of what this concept represents. Participation of citizens in political parties offers unique benefits, including opportunities to influence policy choices, choose and engage political leaders, and run for office. However, in some countries political parties do not respect the rights of citizens to participate and are not accountable to voters.
First was the continuance of relatively free and fair legislative elections. Third was the graduate process of democratic opening that began after the elections of The period itself can be characterized as early legislative rebellion against the military president, subsequent repression and punishment by the military, and then a gradual process whereby repression was reduced and legislative autonomy and rebellion increased.
The legislative branch in Brazil remained opened for most of the authoritarian period, and had regularly scheduled elections every four years. This was true for the national congress as well as state and local legislatures.
However, the rules of the game were manipulated to ensure pro-military majorities and outcomes. Even so, from time to time the legislative branch rebelled against the military-controlled executive branch, usually facing swift repercussions.
Over time, as Brazil embarked on a gradual opening and transition to democracy, the rebellions became more frequent and the repercussions less severe. After the military took the Presidency inthey initially continued to operate within the existing Constitutional framework. Instead, a constitutional crisis was created when the President left the country without permission, and Congress voted a military general to take his place.
Regularly scheduled legislative elections were held in The military was not particularly happy with the outcome and decided to shake things up with a new party system and new constitution.
So many politicians switched into the military party that some had to be nicely asked to join the opposition MDB, or Brazilian Democratic Movement.
As civil-military relations soured, Congress became a space for vocal opposition to the military. One legislator, Marcio Moreira Alves, made a speech suggesting that Brazilian women should avoid relationships with military personnel until democratization and suggesting a boycott of independence day celebrations.
The military considered this an insult to their honor and demanded that his parliamentary immunity from prosecution be lifted. The conflict came to a head with a late night vote in Decemberwhere congress refused to revoke his immunity.
The session ended with a spontaneous singing of the national anthem. The next day, the hammer fell. Opposition and unloyal legislators were removed from office and jailed, the military institutionalized stronger powers to punish elected officials removing them from office, cancelling their political rights, and worse.
Congress was essentially closed for the next several years except for brief votes to approve a new president and new constitution. Hidden in the result was a very high abstention rate for voters.The Ten (Really Twelve) Most Important Things to Know about the U.S.
House of Representatives Ray Smock, former historian of the U.S. House, singles out 12 factors key to understanding . Background: Nurses’ influence on health policy protects the quality of care by access to required recourses and opportunities. This is a new and important concept for nursing; however, research studies on policy influence of nurses in health care sector are lacking a basic conceptual understanding of what this concept represents.
“THE INFLUENCE OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN A MULTILINGUAL AND A MONOLINGUAL ENVIRONMET In a rather monolingual society, maximizing students’ chances and. International Journal of English Language Teaching Vol.3, .
Participation of citizens in political parties offers unique benefits, including opportunities to influence policy choices, choose and engage political leaders, and run for office.
However, in some countries political parties do not respect the rights of citizens to participate and are not accountable to voters. and between individuals and their society.
1. Students Need to Understand. a. The law is a set of general ideas b. When these general ideas are applied, a judge cannot fit a case to suit a rule; he must fit influence. Some of the more important element are customs, history, and logic.
B. The "Problem". legislatures and at the federal. Through our actions, we also influence society to a degree, depending on the size of society and our actions.
C4: Actions I proved earlier that from our earliest social experiences society influences our learning from early on.