Overview[ edit ] Marxism started to develop a libertarian strand of thought after specific circumstances. As the leading figure in the organization Morris embarked on a relentless series of speeches and talks on street corners, in working men's clubs and lecture theatres across England and Scotland.
I bought an apple for 5 cents, spent the evening polishing it, and sold it the next day for 10 cents. With this I bought two apples, spent the Marxism essay polishing them,and sold them for 2O.
And so it went until I amassed It was at this point that my wife's father died and left us a million dollars". What does it all mean? Karl Marx sought the answers to these questions by trying to understand how our capitalist society works for whom it works better, for whom worsehow it arose out of feudalism and where it is likely to lead.
Concentrating on the social and economic relations in which people earn their livings, Marx saw behind capitalism's law and order appearance a struggle of two main classes: Some socialist ideas can be traced as far back as the Bible, but Marxism has its main intellectual origins Marxism essay German philosophy, English political economy, and French utopian socialism.
It is from the German philosopher, Hegel, that Marx learned a way of thinking about the world, in Marxism essay its fluid complexity, that is called "dialectics. From the French utopians, especially Charles Fourier and the Comte de Saint-Simon, Marx caught a glimpse of a happier future that lay beyond capitalism.
Along with the paradox of an Industrial Revolution which produced as much poverty as it did wealth, these are the main ingredients that went into the formation of Marxism.
With dialectics, changes and interaction are brought into focus and emphasized by being viewed as essential parts of whatever institutions and processes are undergoing change and interaction.
In this way, the system of capitalism, the wider context, is never lost sight of when studying any event within it, an election or an economic crisis for example; nor are its real past and future possibilities, the historical context, ever neglected when dealing with how something appears in the present.
Whatever Marx's subject of the moment, his dialectical approach to it insures that his fuller subject is always capitalist society as it developed and is still developing. The actual changes that occur in history are seen here as the outcome of opposing tendencies, or "contradictions", which evolve in the ordinary functioning of society.
Unlike Hegel's dialectic, which operates solely on ideas, Marx's dialectic is materialist. Marx was primarily concerned with capitalism as lived rather than as thought about, but people's lives also involve consciousness. Whereas Hegel examined ideas apart from the people who held them, Marx's materialism puts ideas back into the heads of living people and treats both as parts of a world that is forever being remade through human activities, particularly in production.
In this interaction, social conditions and behavior are found to have a greater affect on the character and development of people's ideas than these ideas do on social conditions and behavior.
How do the ways in which people earn their living affect their bodies, minds and daily lives? In the theory of alienation, Marx gives us his answer to this question. These are owned by the capitalists to whom the workers must sell their "labor power", or ability to do work, in return for a wage.
This system of labor displays four relations that lie at the core of Marx's theory of alienation: Someone else, the capitalist, also sets the conditions and speed of work and even decides if the worker is to be allowed to work or not, i.
This applies not only to relations with the capitalists, who use their control over the worker's activity and product to further their own profit maximizing interests, but also to relations between individuals inside each class as everyone tries to survive as best he can.
Through labor which alienates them from their activity, product and other people, workers gradually lose their ability to develop the finer qualities which belong to them as members of the human species.
The cutting of these relationships in half leaves on one side a seriously diminished individual physically weakened, mentally confused and mystified, isolated and virtually powerless.
On the other side of this separation are the products and ties with other people, outside the control and lost to the understanding of the worker. Unknowingly, the worker has constructed the necessary conditions for reproducing his own alienation.
The world that the worker has made and lost in alienated labor reappears as someone else's private property which he only has access to by selling his labor power and engaging in more alienated labor. Though Marx's main examples of alienation are drawn from the life of workers, other classes are also alienated to the degree that they share or are directly effected by these relations, and that includes the capitalists.
Smith and Ricardo used the labor theory of value to explain the Cost of commodities. For them, the value of any commodity is the result of the amount of labor time that went into its production.
Marx took this explanation more or less for granted. His labor theory of value, however, is primarily concerned with the more basic problem of why goods have prices of any kind.The Soviet Union Versus Socialism Noam Chomsky Our Generation, Spring/Summer, When the world’s two great propaganda systems agree on some doctrine, it requires some intellectual effort to escape its shackles.
Alasdair MacIntyre's "Marxism and Christianity"() is a rewritten concise summary and reflection upon the intellectual history of Marxism as it developed from Hegelian theories of alienation in Marx's early manuscripts to an economic and political doctrine in his later life, and the theoretical and practical difficulties which theoretical Marxism has suffered since then.
Johann is an aspiring politician from Cochem, Germany studying Law in the States. He respects the natural order of things and despises those who do not (communists and over-sensitive millennials).
marxism Essay Words | 13 Pages. All of these theorists are coming from a Marxist perspective, using ideas and terms developed in Marxist theory, though only Althusser actually claims to be a Marxist. Marxism Essay While Liberalism was a philosophical system that produced capitalism as an economic system, Marxism was a reflection of the problems that existed in a capitalistic society.
Therefore, Marxism was the idea behind two new economic systems, socialism and communism. In a significant departure from classical Marxism, Gramsci argues that ideology has a relative autonomy from the economic base.
This is the idea that the superstructure of society has a degree of independence from the economy rather than being directly determined by it.