Harper, ; revised, ; revised, A Critical Exposition Chicago:
References and Further Reading 1. From the "Mayflower Compact," penned in as the early English settlers arrived in the New World, basic socio-political positions were made explicit and fundamental to newly established communities.
Speaking of forming a covenant to "combine ourselves into a civil Body Politic," those arriving on the Mayflower immediately identified a close and ineliminable connection between individuals and their community. This sentiment was echoed in founding documents of other colonies, such as the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut and the Massachusetts Body of Liberties Likewise, the writings of prominent early colonial leaders, such as John Winthrop emphasized "the care of the public must oversway all private respects…for it is a true rule that particular estates cannot subsist in the ruin of the public.
From the earliest concerns, then, even prior to the establishment of the United States, the social and political issues of the relation of individuals to their communities as well as the nature of the communities themselves that is, as secular or religious were paramount.
Far and away the most significant thinker of the first half of the 18th century for American Philosophy was Jonathan Edwards Frequently characterized as trying to synthesize a Christian Platonism, with an emphasis on the reality of a spiritual world, with an empiricist epistemology, an emphasis on Lockean sensation and Newtonian corpuscular physics, Edwards drew directly from the thought of Bishop George Berkeley, who stressed the necessity of mind or non-material reality to make sense of human experience.
This non-material mind, for Edwards, consists of understanding and will, both of which are passive at root. It is understanding that, along lines of the successes of Newtonian physics, leads to the fundamental metaphysical category of Resistance, which Edwards characterizes as "the primary quality of objects.
Understanding, though, is different than will. Edwards is perhaps best known for his rejection of free will. As he remarked, "we can do as we please, but we cannot please as we please. Every act of will is connected to understanding, and thus determined. Echoing the views of John Calvin, Edwards saw not good works, but the grace of God as the determiner of human fortune.
While couched primarily in a religious context for Edwards but less so for others, the acceptance and adaptation of a Newtonian worldview was something shared by most American philosophers in the latter half of the 18th century.
These later thinkers, however, abandoned to a great extent the religious context and focused rather on social-political issues.
Sharing many commitments of European philosophers of the Age of Enlightenment such as a reliance on reason and science, a broad faith in scientific and social progress along with a belief in the perfectibility of humans, a strong advocacy of political democracy and laissez-faire economicsmany of the famous names of American history identified themselves with this enlightenment thought.
While they attended very little to basic issues of metaphysics or epistemology, the Founding Fathers, such as Thomas JeffersonBenjamin Franklinand James Madisonwrote voluminously on social and political philosophy.
The American Declaration of Independence as well as the United States Constitution, with its initial amendments, better known as the Bill of Rights, was drafted at this time, with their emphasis on religious toleration. Though including explicit references to God, these thinkers tended to commit themselves in their writings less to Christianity per se and more to deism, the view of God as creator of a world governed by natural laws which they believed were explicated for the most part by Newton but not directly involved with human action.
For example, as early as and as late as Franklin spoke of God as world-creator and Jesus as providing a system of morality but with no direct commitment to the divinity of Jesus or to any organized church. Instead, a major focus of concern was the appropriate nature of the State and its relation to individuals.
While the thought of Thomas Jefferson, exemplified in the language of the Declaration of Independence, emphasized natural, inalienable rights of individuals against the tyranny of the State - with the legitimacy of the State only in securing the rights of individuals - federalists such as James Madison highlighted dangers of factional democracy, with his view of protecting both individual rights and the public good.
A Hegelian movement, centered in St.
Louis and identified largely with its chief proponent, George Holmes Howisonoccurred in the second half of the nineteenth century, but was overshadowed by the rise of Pragmatism. Even the journal founded in by the St.
Louis Hegelians, The Journal of Speculative Philosophy, became best known later on because of its publication of essays by the pragmatist Charles Peirce Where the thinkers of the American enlightenment stressed social and political concerns, based on a Newtonian mechanistic view of the world, the thinkers of American Transcendentalism took the emphasis on individuals and their relation to the community in a different direction.Cognitive conflict and social context.
According to Dewey, "Reflection arises because of the appearance of incompatible factors within an empirical situation. Dewey, John. - Filosofo e pedagogista statunitense (Burlington, Vermont, - New York ).
Studiò all'univ. del Vermont e alla "Johns Hopkins" di Baltimora. Dal al insegnò in varie università del Middle West, e poi per un decennio all'univ. di Chicago, dove nel aprì una piccola "scuola-laboratorio" a livello materno e elementare, atta a fornire possibilità di.
|D'Abrantès, Laure Junot, duchesse||Richard Price United Kingdom, — Some literature:|
|Sorry! Something went wrong!||Universities Constructivism is an epistemology, or a theory, used to explain how people know what they know. The basic idea is that problem solving is at the heart of learning, thinking, and development.|
|Dewey, John | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy||The eldest sibling died in infancy, but the three surviving brothers attended the public school and the University of Vermont in Burlington with John. While at the University of Vermont, Dewey was exposed to evolutionary theory through the teaching of G.|
Decades before Carl Sagan published his now-legendary Baloney Detection Kit for critical thinking, the great philosopher, psychologist, and education reformer John Dewey (October 20, –June 1, ) penned the definitive treatise on the subject — a subject all the more urgently relevant today. John Dewey, American Pragmatist.
A wing of the Pragmatism Cybrary. John Dewey () was an American psychologist, philosopher, educator, social critic and political activist. He was born in Burlington, Vermont, on 20 October Dewey graduated from the University of Vermont in , and received his PhD from Johns Hopkins University in Introduction to John Dewey's Philosophy of Education.
Education is life itself. - John Dewey. John Dewey () believed that learning was active and schooling unnecessarily long and restrictive.
If John Dewey’s theories had been accurate, it should have been the beginning of a bright new age of understanding. Instead, the world of the young has become uglier and increasingly self-centered The story of American public education begins with Horace Mann.
It was Mann who popularized the.