Reiner 4 Neuroethics 65 Neuroscience has substantially advanced the understanding of how changes in brain biochemistry contribute to mechanisms of tolerance and physical dependence via exposure to addictive drugs. Promoting a brain disease concept is grounded in beneficent and utilitarian thinking: However such claims may yield unintended consequences by fostering discrimination commonly associated with pathology. Specifically, the language of neuroscience used to describe addiction may reduce attitudes such as blame and responsibility while inadvertently identifying addicted persons as neurobiological others.
The region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and then by Homo sapienswho roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula. Neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing.
Modern archeology and research shows a Portuguese root to the Celts in Portugal and elsewhere. The figures of maximum authority were the chieftain chefe tribalof military type and with authority in his Castro or clan, and the druid, main referring medical and religious that could be common to several castros.
The Celtic cosmogony remained homogeneous due to the ability of the druids to meet in councils with the druids of other areas, which ensured the transmission of knowledge and the most significant events. The first documentary references to Castro society are provided by chroniclers of Roman military campaigns such as StraboHerodotus or Pliny the Elderamong others about the social organization, and describing the inhabitants of these territories, the Gallaeci of Northern Portugal as: A few small, semi-permanent, commercial coastal settlements such as Tavira were also founded in the Algarve region by Phoenicians — Carthaginians.
Roman Lusitania and Gallaecia[ edit ] Main articles: Romans first invaded the Iberian Peninsula in BC. The Carthaginians, Rome's adversary in the Punic Warswere expelled from their coastal colonies. During the last days of Julius Caesaralmost the entire peninsula was annexed to the Roman Republic.
The Roman conquest of what is now part of Portugal took almost two hundred years and took many lives of young soldiers and the lives of those who were sentenced to a certain death in the slave mines when not sold as slaves to other parts of the empire.
It suffered a severe setback in BC, when a rebellion began in the north. The Lusitanians and other native tribes, under the leadership of Viriathuswrested control of all of western Iberia. Rome sent numerous legions and its best generals to Lusitania to quell the rebellion, but to no avail — the Lusitanians kept conquering territory.
The Roman leaders decided to change their strategy. They bribed Viriathus's allies to kill him. In BC, Viriathus was assassinated, and Tautalus became leader. Rome installed a colonial regime. The complete Romanization of Lusitania only took place in the Visigothic era.
In 27 BC, Lusitania gained the status of Roman province. Later, a northern province of Lusitania was formed, known as Gallaeciawith capital in Bracara Augusta, today's Braga.
There are still many ruins of castros hill forts all over modern Portugal and remains of Castro culture. The former, beyond being one of the largest Roman settlements in Portugal, is also classified as a National Monument.
The site also has a museum that displays objects found by archaeologists during their excavations. Several works of engineering, such as baths, temples, bridges, roads, circus, theatres and layman's homes are preserved throughout the country.
Coins, some of which coined in Lusitanian land, as well as numerous pieces of ceramics were also found. Contemporary historians include Paulus Orosius c. Martin of Braga ; c. In the early 5th century, Germanic tribesnamely the Suebi and the Vandals Silingi and Hasdingi together with their allies, the Sarmatians and Alans invaded the Iberian Peninsula where they would form their kingdom.
After the defeat against the Visigoths, the Suebian kingdom was divided, with Frantan and Aguiulfo ruling simultaneously. Both reigned from tothe year in which Maldras — reunified the kingdom to finish being assassinated after a failed Roman-Visigothic conspiracy.
Although the conspiracy did not achieve its true purposes, the Suebian Kingdom was again divided between two kings: Frumar Frumario — and Remismundo son of Maldras — who would re-reunify his father's kingdom in and that he would be forced to adopt Arianism in due to the Visigoth influence.
By the yearthe Visigothic Kingdom had been installed in Iberia, based in Toledo and advancing westwards. They became a threat to the Suebian rule. After the death of Remismund Remismundo in a dark period set in, where virtually all written texts and accounts disappear.
This period lasted until The only thing known about this period is that Theodemund Teodemundo most probably ruled the Suebians.The workforce is changing as businesses become global and technology erodes geographical and physical urbanagricultureinitiative.com organizations are critical to enabling this transition and can utilize next-generation tools and strategies to provide world-class support regardless of location, platform or device.
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