Determination of the water potential of potato tissues

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Determination of the water potential of potato tissues

Download PDF Abstract Bioassay is defined as estimation or determination of concentration or potency of physical, chemical or biological agents by means of measuring and comparing the magnitude of the response of the test with that of standard over a suitable biological system under standard set of conditions.

Bioassay is a successful tool in estimation and discovery of biologically active substances and important application in sensitivity and specificity of pharmacological applications.

Chemical method is very complex method which requires high chemical dosage and chemical composition shows the pharmacological actions against the drug.

Keywords Bioassay, Types of Bioassay, Bioassay for Drugs Introduction Biological assays are methods for the estimation of nature, constitution, or potency of a material by means of the reaction that follows its application to living matter.

Bioassay is defined as estimation or determination of concentration or potency of physical, chemical or biological agents by means of measuring and comparing the magnitude of the response of the test with that of standard over a suitable biological system under standard set of conditions [ 12 ].

An assay is a form of biological experiment; but the interest lies in comparing the potencies of treatments on an agreed scale, instead of in comparing the magnitude of effects of different treatments.

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Biological assays or biological standardizations or simply bioassays are methods used for estimation of the potency of substances by observing their pharmacological effects on living animals in vivo or isolated tissues in vitro and comparing the effect of these substances of unknown potency to the effect of a standard.

In this analysis the response produced by the test compound is compared with that of standard sample the way similar to other analytical methods but here the biological system is involved in the determination [ 3 ].

Bioassay is Assessment of a biological substance. Bioassay or biological standardization is a type of scientific experiment typically conducted to measure the effects of a substance on a living organism and is essential in the development of new drugs and in monitoring environmental pollutants [ 4 ].

Bioassays are based upon the use of biological responses as detection system for biologically active substances. In the simplest form it is used to assay the presence and concentration of a particular substance by comparison with a known amount of the same substance.

Both are procedures by which the potency or the nature of a substance is estimated by studying its effects on living matter. Bioassay is a procedure for the determination of the concentration of a particular constitution of a mixture [ 5 - 8 ]. Structure of Biological Assay The typical bioassay involves a stimulus applied to a subject.

Application of stimulus is followed by a change in some measurable characteristic of the subject, the magnitude of the change being dependent upon the dose. The intensity of the stimulus is varied by using the various Doses by the analyst. Principle of Bioassay Active principle to be assayed should show the same measured response in all animal species [ 9 ].

Bioassay involves the comparison of the main pharmacological response of the unknown preparation with that of the standard [ 10 - 14 ].

The method selected should be reliable, sensitive, and reproducible and should minimize errors due to biological variation and methodology.

The degree of pharmacological response produced should be reproducible under identical conditions. The reference standard and test sample should have same pharmacological effect and mode of action, so that their DRC curve run parallel and their potency ratio can be calculated [ 15 - 18 ].

Bioassay might measure a diff aspect of the same substance compared to chemical assay. The test solution and standard should be compared for their established pharmacological effect using a specified pharmacological technique [ 20 - 23 ]. Prior to the development of sensitive, precise, accurate chemical and binding displacement assays for the presence or concentrations of drugs or autacoids we had to rely on bio-assays [ 24 - 26 ].

Determination of the water potential of potato tissues

Types of Bioassays There are three main types of bioassays other than qualitative assays [ 27 ] 1. Indirect Assays based upon quantitative responses 3.The solution is clear: Where the world comes to its senses - Berjé is a global distributor of Essential Oils and Aromatic Chemicals. Berjé is a family-owned business that has been in operation for six decades.

Coloration.

Determination of the water potential of potato tissues

In flowers, the coloration that is provided by anthocyanin accumulation may attract a wide variety of animal pollinators, while in fruits, the same coloration may aid in seed dispersal by attracting herbivorous animals to the potentially-edible fruits bearing these red, blue, or purple colors.

Source: Bourdoux et al., Sweet potato. Sweet potato contains raffinose, one of the sugars responsible for flatulence. Three of the sugars which occur in plant tissues, raffinose, stachyose and verbascose are not digested in the upper digestive tract, and so are fermented by colon bacteria to yield the flatus gases, hydrogen and carbon dioxide.

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- Determining the Water Potential of Potato Tubers using Gravimetric and Chardakov Techniques 1. INTRODUCTION: Water potential (W) is the measure of free-energy status of water in plant cell, which is the driving force governing the movement of water into and out of the plat cell and affect various metabolic activities (O’Leary, ).

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Using this figure (and the regression line determined from it), determine the exact concentration of sucrose that would cause no change in weight in the potato tubers. The water potential of this solution will equal the water potential of the potato tissue.

In an open solution where there is no turgor pressure, the p .

Principles Involved in Bioassay by different Methods: A Mini-Review | Open Access Journals