Economic history of Argentina Argentina's many years of military dictatorship alternating with weak, short-lived democratic governments had already caused significant economic problems prior to the crisis, particularly during the self-styled National Reorganization Process in power from to The new government intended to stabilize the economy and in introduced austerity measures and a new currency, the Argentine australthe first of its kind without peso in its name. Prices for state-run utilities, telephone service, and gas increased substantially.
The new government intended to stabilize the economy and in introduced austerity measures and a new currency, the Argentine australthe first of its kind without peso in its name. Prices for state-run utilities, telephone service, and gas increased substantially.
The Central Bank of Argentina had to keep its US dollar foreign exchange reserves at the same level as the cash in circulation. The initial aim of such measures was to ensure the acceptance of domestic currency because after the and hyperinflation, Argentines had started to demand payment in US dollars.
This regime was later modified by a law Ley de Convertibilidad that restored the Argentine peso as the national currency. That raised the quality of life for many citizens, who could again afford to travel abroad, buy imported goods or ask for credit in dollars at traditional interest rates. The fixed exchange rate reduced the cost of imports, which produced a flight of dollars from the country and a massive loss of industrial infrastructure and employment in industry.
Argentina, however, still had external public debt that it needed to roll over. Government spending remained too high, and corruption was rampant. The IMF kept lending money to Argentina and extending its payment schedules.
Massive tax evasion and money laundering contributed to the movement of funds toward offshore banks. Other Latin American countries, including Mexico and Brazil both important trade partners for Argentina faced economic crises of their own, leading to mistrust of the regional economy.
The influx of foreign currency provided by the privatization of state companies had ended. AfterArgentine exports were harmed by the devaluation of the Brazilian real against the dollar.
Devaluing the peso by abandoning the exchange peg was considered political suicide and a recipe for economic disaster. By the end of the century, complementary currencies had emerged. While the provinces of Argentina had always issued complementary currency in the form of bonds and drafts to manage shortages of cash, the scale of such borrowing reached unprecedented levels during this period.
The fixed exchange rate between Argentine peso and the US dollar decided by Cavallo. The large amounts of borrowing by Menem. An increase in debt from reduced tax revenues.
When the peso was first linked to the U. Dollar at parity in February under the Convertibility Law, initial economic effects were quite positive: Over time, however, the peso appreciated against the majority of currencies as the U.
Dollar became increasingly stronger in the second half of the s.
A strong peso hurt exports from Argentina and caused a protracted economic downturn that eventually led to the abandonment of the peso-dollar parity in This change, in turn, caused severe economic and political distress in the country. The unemployment rate rose above 20 percent and inflation reached a monthly rate of about 20 percent in April In contrast, Hong Kong was able to successfully defend its currency board arrangement during the Asian financial crisis, a major stress test for the arrangement.
Although there is no clear consensus on the causes of the Argentine crisis, there are at least three factors that are related to the collapse of the currency board system and ensuing economic crisis: The lack of fiscal discipline Labor market inflexibility Contagion from the financial crises in Russia and Brazil.
While the currency crisis is over, the debt problem has not been completely resolved.
The government of Argentina ceased all debt payments in December in the wake of persistent recession and rising social and political unrest. Foreign bondholders rejected this offer and asked for an improved offer. In earlybondholders finally agreed to the restructuring, under which they took a cut of about 70 percent on the value of their bond holdings.
When the recession began inthe national deficit widened to 2. Several more rounds of belt-tightening followed.Argentina Joins Venezuela In The Currency Crisis Club May 4, 15 Comments In interviews, whenever I try to make the case that US policies are leading to the kinds of currency disruptions common in developing countries, I say something like, “For a glimpse of America’s future, take a look at Argentina, where they’re eating cats and.
Watch video · In addition to IMF support, Argentina's government has also raised interest rates to 45 percent in an attempt to curb inflation and slow the peso's dramatic slide.
Jul 30, · It was the latest crisis in Latin America’s No. 3 economy, which has suffered a series of economic and political meltdowns going back to the s. Inflation soared to 40 percent, and real.
A rocky road before recovery Argentina’s currency crisis is far from over. When he took office in December , inflation was running at 25%. He allowed the peso to float.
It . Most important, he must prevent the run on the currency from spiralling into a run on the banks, as had happened in the economic crisis after the IMF’s last programme in Argentina failed.
Argentina’s reliance on U.S. dollar funding, coupled with the depreciation of its own currency is sending the country in to the all-too-familiar direction: financial turmoil.