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Background[ edit ] The political and ideological background of the Internet censorship is considered to be one of Deng Xiaoping 's favorite sayings in the early s: Superseding the political ideologies of the Cultural Revolutionthe reform led China towards a market economy and opened up the economy for foreign investors.
Nonetheless the Communist Party of China CPC has wished to protect its values and political ideas from "swatting flies" of other ideologies,  with a particular emphasis on suppressing movements that could potentially threaten the power of the CPC and the stability of the Chinese government.
The Internet arrived in the country in as an inevitable consequence of, and supporting tool for, the "socialist market economy". Since then, and with gradual increasing availability, the Internet has become a common communication platform and an important tool for sharing information. Just as the Chinese government had expected, the number of internet users in China soared from nearly 0 percent inwhen the Internet was first introduced to the society, to The first part of the project lasted eight years and was completed in The second part began in and ended in The Golden Shield project was a database project where the government could access the record of every citizen and connect China's securities organizations.
The government had the power to delete any comments online that were considered harmful and opposing the Chinese government. According to Amnesty International, around 30,—50, internet police are employed to enforce Chinese internet laws. The white paperreleased in Junecalled the internet "a crystallization of human wisdom.
Another section of the same white paper reaffirms the government's determination to govern the internet within its borders according to its own rules. The internet sovereignty of China should be respected and protected," it says. It adds that foreign individuals and firms can use the internet in China, but they must abide by the country's laws.
It was formally announced on 1 Februaryand updated again on 20 May It was issued on 18 February by the State Council to give the responsibility of Internet security protection to the Ministry of Public Security. The regulation defines "harmful information" and "harmful activities" regarding internet usage.
No unit or individual may use the Internet to create, replicate, retrieve, or transmit the following kinds of information: Inciting to resist or breaking the Constitution or laws or the implementation of administrative regulations; Inciting to overthrow the government or the socialist system ; Inciting division of the countryharming national unification; Inciting hatred or discrimination among nationalities or harming the unity of the nationalities; Making falsehoods or distorting the truth, spreading rumors, destroying the order of society ; Terrorism or inciting others to criminal activity ; openly insulting other people or distorting the truth to slander people; Injuring the reputation of state organizations; Other activities against the Constitution, laws or administrative regulations.
China-based Web sites cannot link to overseas news Web sites or distribute news from overseas media without separate approval. Only "licensed print publishers" have the authority to deliver news online. Non-licensed Web sites that wish to broadcast news may only publish information already released publicly by other news media.
These sites must obtain approval from state information offices and from the State Council Information Agency. Article 11 of this order mentions that "content providers are responsible for ensuring the legality of any information disseminated through their services.
Enforcement[ edit ] In DecemberPublic Security minister Zhu Entao released new regulations to be enforced by the ministry that inflict fines for "defaming government agencies," "splitting the nation," and leaking "state secrets.
The blocks have often been lifted for special occasions. For example, The New York Times was unblocked when reporters in a private interview with CPC general secretary Jiang Zemin specifically asked about the block and he replied that he would look into the matter.
Sincethe content controls have been further relaxed on a permanent basis, and all three of the sites previously mentioned are now accessible from mainland China.
In the middle ofChina purchased over routers from an American company, Cisco Systemswhich allowed the Chinese government a more advanced technological censoring ability.
Netizens only could visit the local websites besides a few national government websites. The relationship of the new agency to other agencies in China which regulate the Internet was unclear from the announcement.the rest of the marketing mix.
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