We provide state of the art ADHD diagnosis and evaluation utilizing rating scales, interviewing, computerized testing and Quantitative EEG topographic brain mapping.
Overview[ edit ] Executive functioning is a theoretical construct representing a domain of cognitive processes that regulate, control, and manage other cognitive processes.
Executive functioning is not a unitary concept; it is a broad description of the set of processes involved in certain areas of cognitive and behavioural control.
Executive dysfunction does occur to a minor degree in all individuals on both short-term and long-term scales. In non-clinical populations, the activation of executive processes appears to inhibit further activation of the same processes, suggesting a mechanism for normal fluctuations in executive control.
Executive dysfunction, particularly in working memory capacity, may also lead to varying degrees of emotional dysregulation, which can manifest as chronic depressionanxietyor hyperemotionality. Learning and development of long-term memory play a role in the severity of executive dysfunction through dynamic interaction with neurological characteristics.
Studies in cognitive neuroscience suggest that executive functions are widely distributed throughout the brain, though a few areas have been isolated as primary contributors. Executive dysfunction is studied extensively in clinical neuropsychology as well, allowing correlations to be drawn between such dysexecutive symptoms and their neurological correlates.
In the case of acquired brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases there is a clear neurological etiology producing dysexecutive symptoms. Conversely, syndromes and disorders are defined and diagnosed based on their symptomatology rather than etiology.
A common assumption is that disrupted executive control processes are associated with pathology in prefrontal brain regions. According to Friedman et al. The dopamine receptor D4 gene DRD4 with 7'-repeating polymorphism 7R has been repeatedly shown to correlate strongly with impulsive response style on psychological tests of executive dysfunction, particularly in clinical ADHD.
Although a trained non-professional working outside of an institutionalized setting can legally and competently perform many of these measures, a trained professional administering the test in a standardized setting will yield the most accurate results.
It is relatively easy to train non-professional staff to administer a CDT. After the task is complete, the test administrator draws a clock with the hands set at the same specific time.
Then the patient is asked to copy the image. Stroop task[ edit ] The cognitive mechanism involved in the Stroop task is referred to as directed attention.
The Stroop task requires the participant to engage in and allows assessment of processes such as attention management, speed and accuracy of reading words and colours and of inhibition of competing stimuli. For example, the word "red" is written in a blue font. In the aforementioned example, this would require the participant to say "blue" when presented with the stimulus.
Although the majority of people will show some slowing when given incompatible text versus font colour, this is more severe in individuals with deficits in inhibition.
The Stroop task takes advantage of the fact that most humans are so proficient at reading colour words that it is extremely difficult to ignore this information, and instead acknowledge, recognize and say the colour the word is printed in.
The participants are then given a pile of additional cards and are asked to match each one to one of the previous cards. Typically, children between ages 9 and 11 are able to show the cognitive flexibility that is needed for this test.
Part B differs from Part A specifically in that it assesses more complex factors of motor control and perception. The participant's objective for this test is to connect the circles in order, alternating between number and letter e.
The task is also timed as a means of assessing speed of processing. Clinical presentation of severe executive dysfunction that is unrelated to a specific disease or disorder is classified as a dysexecutive syndromeand often appears following damage to the frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex.
It has been assessed and researched extensively in relation to cognitive developmental disorders, psychotic disordersaffective disordersand conduct disordersas well as neurodegenerative diseases and acquired brain injury ABI.
Environmental dependency syndrome is a dysexecutive syndrome marked by significant behavioural dependence on environmental cues and is marked by excessive imitation and utilization behaviour.
Observed damage to explicit, consciously accessed, memory is generally attributed to the fragmented thoughts that characterize the disorder. However, implicit memory is generally preserved in patients with schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia demonstrate spared performance on measures of visual and verbal attention and concentration, as well as on immediate digit span recall, suggesting that observed deficits cannot be attributed to deficits in attention or short-term memory.
Working memory and multi-tasking impairments typically characterize the disorder.
However, performance on tasks associated with the phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad are typically less affected. Individuals with ADHD often experience problems with organization, discipline, and setting priorities, and these difficulties often persist from childhood through adulthood.Printer-friendly Version: Every year the National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities (NICHCY) receives thousands of requests for information about the education and special needs of children and youth with Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADHD, ADD/ADHD).
Introduction. Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the core symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). A child's academic success is often dependent on his or her ability to attend to tasks and teacher and classroom expectations with minimal distraction.
Neurodevelopmental disabilities, including autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, and other cognitive impairments, affect millions of children worldwide, and some diagnoses seem to be increasing in frequency. Browse these Top Picks to discover the best in educational apps and websites that support children with learning and attention issues in these areas: emotional intelligence, social skills, and executive function.
Learning disabilities, including dyslexia, ADD, ADHD, and autism can be life changing and debilitating. Many students struggle in school and switch to a more flexible learning style — such as online programs — or drop out altogether.
But for others, a learning disability may be a gift, requiring them to work harder and achieve more, or have a special focus or talent. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder When I was first searching for a culture to talk about for this paper, I never knew how many people are affected with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).